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CHORIORETINAL INFLAMMATORY DISEASES - Noninfectious Causes

Uveal Effusion

Uveal Effusion - Start  
Uveal Effusion - End  

The term "uveal" or "ciliochoroidal" effusion refers to an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the outer layer of the choroid and ciliary body. The fluid usually collects in the suprachoroidal layer, although in some cases this results in a true ciliochoroidal detachment from the sclera.

A chronic accumulation of a protein-rich fluid in the choroid may result in an outer blood-retinal barrier breakdown, causing a non-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

Uveal effusion does not refer to a specific entity, but rather to an anatomic condition caused by a variety of ocular and systemic disorders.

CLASSIFICATION OF UVEAL EFFUSION

HYDRODYNAMIC FACTORS

Ocular hypotony

  • Ciliary body dysfunction (traction, ischemia)
  • Cyclodialysis cleft
  • Glaucoma filter
  • Penetrating ocular trauma
  • Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
  • Wound leak

Elevated uveal venous pressure

  • Arteriovenous fistula
  • Idiopathic prominent episcleral vessels
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • Valsava's maneuver
  • Vortex vein compression by scleral buckle

Malignant hypertension

INFLAMMATORY FACTORS

  • After photocoagulation or cryotherapy
  • After trauma or surgery
  • Drug reaction
  • Orbital cellulitis / pseudotumor
  • Scleritis
  • Uveitis

NEOPLASIC CONDITIONS

  • Lymphoid, leukemic, or melanocytic choroidal infiltrations
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Metastatic carcinoma

SECONDARY TO ABNORMAL SCLERA

  • Mucopolysaccharidosis idiopathic uveal effusion syndrome
  • Nanophthalmos
  •  

References

  • Green WR: The uveal tract. In Spencer WH (ed): Ophthalmic Pathology. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1986, pp 1776-1791
  • Brockhurst RJ: Vortex vein decompression for nanophthalmic uveal effusion. Arch Ophthalmol 98:1987-1990, 1980
 
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